Needle in a Haystack

In the late 1950s, the primary means of international communication was by undersea cable or by bouncing radio waves off the ionosphere. The US was concerned that in the event of a major conflict, the cables could be cut. This would force all communications through the less reliable radio connection through the ionosphere. The solution, in the days before communication satellites? Create a man-made ionosphere using 480 million tiny copper dipole antennas.

In 1961 the Air Force launched the first needle dispenser. The experiment was called Project West Ford, and it was hoped that this demonstration would prove the concept so that 2 more permanent communication rings could be deployed. The needles in the first launch failed to properly disperse, but a second launch in May of 1963 was successful.

The 20 kg of copper needles were packed inside the spacecraft in blocks of napthalene gel that would evaporate when released into space. After that the needles would gradually disperse over a period of two months. The resulting cloud, in the shape of a donut, was 5 km wide, 30 km thick and encircled the globe at an altitude of 3700 km.

These tiny antenna were designed to operate on a half-wavelength of military X-band (8 GHz) communication. When the radio wave struck the copper needles, each would reflect the signal in all directions.

Communication was first attempted 4 days after the launch, so the needles were more densely spaced than final dispersal. Voice transmission was described as ‘intelligible’, and data speeds of 20,000 bits per second were obtained. However, by July only 400 bits er second could be transmitted after further dispersal.

Despite the success of the test, no further West Ford missions were ever developed. One reason was the backlash from the scientific community, who feared that a giant cloud of tiny antenna would block astronomic research. Even the Soviets joined in the protest, claiming in Pravda U.S.A. Dirties Space. Additionally, satellite technology was developing at a sufficient pace that the low tech solution of bouncing radio waves off copper antenna seemed outdated already.

The Kennedy White house issued a statement on Project West Ford, as shown below, and Ambassador Adlai E. Stevenson had to defend the project to the U.N.

No further launches of orbiting dipoles will be planned until after the
results of the West Ford experiment have been analyzed and
evaluated. The findings and conclusions of foreign and domestic
scientists (including the liaison committee of astronomers established
by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences)
should be carefully considered in such analysis and evaluation.
Any decision to place additional quantities of dipoles in orbit,
subsequent to the West Ford experiment, will be contingent upon the
results of the analysis and evaluation and the development of
necessary safeguards against  harmful interference with space
activities or with any branch of science.
Optical and radio astronomers throughout the world should be invited
to cooperate in the West Ford experiment to ascertain the effects of the
experimental belt in both the optical and the radio parts of the
spectrum. To assist in such cooperation, they should be given
appropriate information on a timely basis. Scientific data derived from
the experiment should be made available to the public as promptly as
feasible after the launching.

Perhaps the most enduring legacy of Project West Ford was its contribution to international space law, as it established a US policy that the international scientific community would be consulted before the launch of such experiments. This was later codified into the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space (the Principles Treaty).


Sources were for the lead photo, for the other images,,, and Wikipedia for information.

  • mr. mzs zsm msz esq

    Great post, never knew about this! Where are needles now? Burned-up? Dissipated?

    • A couple of the sources indicate that there are still needles up there, although it was expected when the mission was launched that they would all re-enter relativity quickly. Stevenson assured the UN they would all be gone within 3 years.

      "The particles dispersed rapidly and no one could detect them after a few months. Because of their large area to mass, it was assumed that they would all reenter the Earth's atmosphere and burn up within a few years. It is thus was quite unexpected when a few years ago a sensitive radar detected over 40,000 clumps of these dipoles still in orbit."

      Web archive 'Spacecraft of the Day'

      Several early sources indicated that the dipoles had re-entered by 1966. However, it appears that many clumps of the needles are indeed still in orbit, adding to the orbital debris problem (pdf). For example, one clump is identified as 1963-014-E, and has the following orbit information, as of 11:21:28 AM UTC, Saturday, September 13, 2003:

      Eccentricity: 0.0046420
      Inclination: 87.3097°
      Perigee Height: 3,583 km
      Apogee Height: 3,676 km
      Right Ascension of Ascending Node: 263.1877°
      Argument of Perigee: 299.8841°
      Revolutions per Day: 8.67192725
      Mean Anomaly at Epoch: 59.7386°
      Orbit Number at Epoch: 27747

      There are numerous clumps, which you can find by searching the database at"

  • Cavemanengineer

    Apparently some clumps of needles are still in orbit, most of them have burned up.

  • schigleymischke

    I have this idea, probably a bad one. For July Fourth, have some of our astronauts dump various minerals and metals out the window at just the right time to give the entire US a high altitude fireworks show. No doubt the rest of the world wouldn't appreciate this show of American nationalism, but so what?